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Type: Journal article
Title: HvALMT1 from barley is involved in the transport of organic anions
Author: Gruber, B.
Ryan, P.
Richardson, A.
Tyerman, S.
Ramesh, S.
Hebb, D.
Howitt, S.
Delhaize, E.
Citation: Journal of Experimental Botany, 2010; 61(5):1455-1467
Publisher: Oxford Univ Press
Issue Date: 2010
ISSN: 0022-0957
Statement of
Benjamin D. Gruber, Peter R. Ryan, Alan E. Richardson, Stephen D. Tyerman, Sunita Ramesh, Diane M. Hebb, Susan M. Howitt and Emmanuel Delhaize
Abstract: Members of the ALMT gene family contribute to the Al(3+) resistance of several plant species by facilitating malate efflux from root cells. The first member of this family to be cloned and characterized, TaALMT1, is responsible for most of the natural variation of Al(3+) resistance in wheat. The current study describes the isolation and characterization of HvALMT1, the barley gene with the greatest sequence similarity to TaALMT1. HvALMT1 is located on chromosome 2H which has not been associated with Al(3+) resistance in barley. The relatively low levels of HvALMT1 expression detected in root and shoot tissues were independent of external aluminium or phosphorus supply. Transgenic barley plants transformed with the HvALMT1 promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that expression of HvALMT1 was relatively high in stomatal guard cells and in root tissues containing expanding cells. GFP fused to the C-terminus of the full HvALMT1 protein localized to the plasma membrane and motile vesicles within the cytoplasm. HvALMT1 conferred both inward and outward currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes that were bathed in a range of anions including malate. Both malate uptake and efflux were confirmed in oocyte assays using [(14)C]malate as a radiotracer. It is suggested that HvALMT1 functions as an anion channel to facilitate organic anion transport in stomatal function and expanding cells.
Keywords: Channel; HvALMT1; malate; oocytes; organic anion; stomata
Rights: © 2010 The Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This paper is available online free of all access charges (see for further details)
RMID: 0020095676
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erq023
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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