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Type: Journal article
Title: Effects of fat on gastric emptying of and the glycemic, insulin, and incretin responses to a carbohydrate meal in type 2 diabetes
Author: Gentilcore, D.
Chaikomin, R.
Jones, K.
Russo, A.
Feinle-Bisset, C.
Wishart, J.
Rayner, C.
Horowitz, M.
Citation: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2006; 91(6):2062-2067
Publisher: Endocrine Society
Issue Date: 2006
ISSN: 0021-972X
Statement of
Diana Gentilcore, Reawika Chaikomin, Karen L. Jones, Antonietta Russo, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Judith M. Wishart, Christopher K. Rayner, and Michael Horowitz
Abstract: Context: Gastric emptying (GE) is a major determinant of postprandial glycemia. Because the presence of fat in the small intestine inhibits GE, ingestion of fat may attenuate the glycemic response to carbohydrate. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of patterns of fat consumption on GE and glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations after a carbohydrate meal in type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a randomized, cross-over study in which GE of a radioisotopically labeled potato meal was measured on 3 d. Setting: The study was performed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Patients: Six males with type 2 diabetes were studied. Intervention: Subjects ingested 1) 30 ml water 30 min before the mashed potato (water), 2) 30 ml olive oil 30 min before the mashed potato (oil), or 3) 30 ml water 30 min before the mashed potato meal that contained 30 ml olive oil (water and oil). Main Outcome Measures: GE, blood glucose, plasma insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were the main outcome measures. Results: GE was much slower with oil compared with both water (P < 0.0001) and water and oil (P < 0.05) and was slower after water and oil compared with water (P < 0.01). The postprandial rise in blood glucose was markedly delayed (P = 0.03), and peak glucose occurred later (P = 0.04) with oil compared with the two other meals. The rises in insulin and GIP were attenuated (P < 0.0001), whereas the GLP-1 response was greater (P = 0.0001), after oil. Conclusions: Ingestion of fat before a carbohydrate meal markedly slows GE and attenuates the postprandial rises in glucose, insulin, and GIP, but stimulates GLP-1, in type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Humans; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide; Insulin; Dietary Carbohydrates; Blood Glucose; Dietary Fats; Cross-Over Studies; Gastric Emptying; Aged; Middle Aged; Male; Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Description: Copyright © 2006 Endocrine Society
RMID: 0020060653
DOI: 10.1210/jc.2005-2644
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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