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Type: Journal article
Title: Therapeutically relevant structural and functional mechanisms triggered by physical and cognitive exercise
Author: Suo, C.
Singh, M.
Gates, N.
Wen, W.
Sachdev, P.
Brodaty, H.
Saigal, N.
Wilson, G.
Meiklejohn, J.
Singh, N.
Baune, B.
Baker, M.
Foroughi, N.
Wang, Y.
Mavros, Y.
Lampit, A.
Leung, I.
Valenzuela, M.
Citation: Molecular Psychiatry, 2016; 21(11):1633-1642
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 1359-4184
Statement of
C Suo, M Fiatarone Singh, N Gates, W Wen, P Sachdev, H Brodaty, N Saigal, GC Wilson, J Meiklejohn, N Singh, BT Baune, M Baker, N Foroughi, Y Wang, Y Mavros, A Lampit, I Leung, and MJ Valenzuela
Abstract: Physical and cognitive exercise may prevent or delay dementia in later life but the neural mechanisms underlying these therapeutic benefits are largely unknown. We examined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain changes after 6 months of progressive resistance training (PRT), computerized cognitive training (CCT) or combined intervention. A total of 100 older individuals (68 females, average age=70.1, s.d.±6.7, 55-87 years) with dementia prodrome mild cognitive impairment were recruited in the SMART (Study of Mental Activity and Resistance Training) Trial. Participants were randomly assigned into four intervention groups: PRT+CCT, PRT+SHAM CCT, CCT+SHAM PRT and double SHAM. Multimodal MRI was conducted at baseline and at 6 months of follow-up (immediately after training) to measure structural and spontaneous functional changes in the brain, with a focus on the hippocampus and posterior cingulate regions. Participants' cognitive changes were also assessed before and after training. We found that PRT but not CCT significantly improved global cognition (F(90)=4.1, P<0.05) as well as expanded gray matter in the posterior cingulate (Pcorrected <0.05), and these changes were related to each other (r=0.25, P=0.03). PRT also reversed progression of white matter hyperintensities, a biomarker of cerebrovascular disease, in several brain areas. In contrast, CCT but not PRT attenuated decline in overall memory performance (F(90)=5.7, P<0.02), mediated by enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and superior frontal cortex. Our findings indicate that physical and cognitive training depend on discrete neuronal mechanisms for their therapeutic efficacy, information that may help develop targeted lifestyle-based preventative strategies.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 22 March 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.19.
Keywords: Brain; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Exercise; Cognition; Memory; Structure-Activity Relationship; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Middle Aged; Female; Male; Resistance Training; Gray Matter; Cognitive Dysfunction
Description: Corrected by: Erratum: Molecular Psychiatry (2016) 21, 1645–1645; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.57; published online 19 April 2016. Following publication of the above article, the authors noticed that the second author’s name was presented incorrectly. The author’s name should have appeared as M Fiatarone Singh. The publisher regrets the error.
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if thematerial is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
RMID: 0030045697
DOI: 10.1038/mp.2016.19
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Appears in Collections:Psychiatry publications

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