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Type: Journal article
Title: Expression of osteoclast differentiation signals by stromal elements of giant cell tumors
Author: Atkins, G.
Haynes, D.
Graves, S.
Evdokiou, A.
Hay, S.
Bouralexis, S.
Findlay, D.
Citation: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2000; 15(4):640-649
Publisher: Amer Soc Bone & Mineral Res
Issue Date: 2000
ISSN: 0884-0431
Abstract: The mechanisms by which primary tumors of the bone cause bone destruction have not been elucidated. Unlike most other lytic bone tumors, osteoclastomas, otherwise known as giant cell tumors (GCT), contain osteoclast-like cells within the tumor stroma. A new member of the TNF-ligand superfamily member, osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF/OPGL/RANKL/TRANCE), was recently identified. ODF was shown to directly stimulate osteoclastogenesis, in the presence of M-CSF. In this study, the expression of ODF was examined in a number of tumor samples associated with bone lysis in vivo. In addition, we investigated expression of the ODF receptor on osteoclast precursors, RANK, as well as the ODF inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG), and another TNF-ligand superfamily member, TRAIL, previously shown to abrogate the inhibitory effects of OPG. We report here the novel finding that GCT stromal cells contain abundant ODF mRNA, whereas the giant cell population exclusively expresses RANK mRNA. These results are consistent with the osteoclast-mediated bone destruction by these tumors. We also report the expression of OPG and TRAIL mRNA in GCT samples. A comparison with other lytic and nonlytic tumors of bone showed that GCT express more ODF and TRAIL mRNA relative to OPG mRNA. In addition, GCT were found to express a number of cytokines previously reported to play central roles in osteoclastogenesis, namely, IL-1, -6, -11, -17, as well as TNF-alpha. Importantly, GCT were also found to express high levels of M-CSF mRNA, a cytokine shown to be an essential cofactor of ODF, and a survival factor for mature and developing osteoclasts. Furthermore, expression of these molecules by stromal cells isolated from GCT continued in vitro. Thus GCT constitutively express all of the signals that are currently understood to be necessary for the differentiation of osteoclasts from precursor cells.
Keywords: Osteoclasts; Giant Cell Tumor of Bone; Bone Neoplasms; Glycoproteins; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Carrier Proteins; Membrane Glycoproteins; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; RNA, Messenger; Biological Markers; Cytokines; Ligands; Signal Transduction; Cell Differentiation; Hematopoiesis; Gene Expression; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; RANK Ligand; TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; Osteoprotegerin
RMID: 0001001072
DOI: 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.4.640
Appears in Collections:Orthopaedics and Trauma publications

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