Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/130481
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Type: Journal article
Title: Counterfeit formulations: analytical perspective on anorectics
Author: Bonsu, D.O.M.
Afoakwah, C.
Aguilar-Caballos, M.D.L.P.
Citation: Forensic Toxicology, 2021; 39(1):1-25
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 1860-8965
1860-8973
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Dan Osei Mensah Bonsu, Constance Afoakwah, Maria de la Paz Aguilar-Caballos
Abstract: Purpose: This paper examines the scope of anorectics in counterfeit weight-reducing formulations and provides insight into the present state of research in determining such adulterants. Analytical techniques utilised in profiling adulterants found in slimming products, including limitations and mitigation steps of these conventional methods are also discussed. The current legal status of the anorectics and analogues routinely encountered in non-prescription slimming formulations is also explored. Methods: All reviewed literature was extracted from Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases using relevant search terms, such as, ‘counterfeit drugs’, ‘weight loss drugs’, ‘weight-reducing drugs’, ‘slimming drugs’, ‘anorectic agents’, and ‘counterfeit anorexics’. Legislation related to anorectics was obtained from the portals of various government and international agencies. Results: Anorectics frequently profiled in counterfeit slimming formulations are mostly amphetamine derivatives or its analogues. Five routinely reported pharmacological classes of adulterants, namely anxiolytics, diuretics, antidepressants, laxatives, and stimulants, are mainly utilised as coadjuvants in fake weigh-reducing formulations to increase bioavailability or to minimise anticipated side effects. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detectors are predominantly used techniques for anorectic analysis due to the possibility of obtaining detailed information of adulterants. However, interference from the complex sample matrices of these fake products limits the accuracy of these methods and requires robust sample preparation methods for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. The most common anorectics found in counterfeit slimming medicines are either completely banned or available by prescription only, in many countries. Conclusions: Slimming formulations doped with anorectic cocktails to boost their weight-reducing efficacy are not uncommon. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry remains the gold standard for counterfeit drug analysis, and requires improved preconcentration methods for rapid and quantitative identification of specific chemical constituents. Extensive method development and validation, targeted at refining existing techniques while developing new ones, is expected to improve the analytical profiling of counterfeit anorectics significantly.
Keywords: Anorectics; Counterfeit weight loss formulations; Adulterants in slimming products; Amphetamine derivatives; Antihyperglycemic agents; LC–MS/MS
Description: Published online: 2 January 2021
Rights: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat iveco mmons .org/licen ses/by/4.0/. MS
DOI: 10.1007/s11419-020-00564-5
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 8
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA publications

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