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dc.contributor.advisorTan, Yan-
dc.contributor.advisorBonham, Jennifer-
dc.contributor.authorMorey, Madeleine Rose-
dc.description.abstractDrawing on the concept of transnationalism, this thesis explores the integration and transnational practices of New Zealand migrants in Australia. The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement (TTTA) that was implemented in 1973, allows New Zealand citizens to live, work and travel to Australia with few restrictions. Since then, the TTTA has only undergone one major change. In 2001, New Zealanders’ access to social security services was revoked, requiring those who have moved since then to obtain permanent residency. Before 2017, pathways to permanent residency required New Zealanders to meet the same requirements applied to migrants from other countries, which included having a job on the Skilled Occupation List. Yet the open nature of the TTTA means any New Zealander regardless of their occupation can move to Australia, leaving many unable to apply through the pathways available. In 2017, an income-tested permanent residency pathway specifically for New Zealanders came into effect with this pathway drawing criticism for excluding those in low-income jobs, those who work part-time or have taken time off work. This mixed-methods study was conducted through an online survey (n=2040) distributed through social media platforms and 21 semi-structured interviews. The survey and interviews allowed New Zealanders in Australia to detail how they maintained ties to New Zealand, their integration into Australia, and their views on obtaining Australian citizenship. Analysis of secondary data, including census data and immigration statistics, provides the context for the research. The results show respondents maintained strong socio-cultural ties to New Zealand but weak political and economic ties. Unlike migrants from other countries, respondents primarily moved to Australia to better their financial circumstances rather than to send remittances. Existing social ties in Australia also contributed to their decision to migrate. Respondents were generally well integrated at the micro- and meso- scales and experienced similar challenges to migrants from other countries, despite the language and cultural similarities between the two countries. Structural changes in Australia over the last thirty years affected their economic, social, and political integration. In particular, the casualisation of labour and the occupations respondents worked in affected their ability to apply for permanent residency and citizenship. The results found many respondents worked in occupations that were not on the Skilled Occupation List and/or had unpredictable work hours meaning their yearly income was not consistent, preventing them from applying for the Skilled Independent visa (subclass 189) New Zealand stream and the other permanent residency visas available. This structural exclusion has affected the political integration of respondents as being ineligible for these visas leaves them feeling disenfranchised as they cannot secure their status in Australia. Security of status has become increasingly important amid the deportations of New Zealanders from Australia since 2014. Theoretically, this thesis contributes to our knowledge of how transnationalism operates between two Global-North countries that have the same national language and are culturally similar. It shows how the country and cultural contexts play a role in shaping transnationalism and integration. As even though there are similarities between New Zealand and Australia, policies and structures not aimed directly at migrants affect the degree of integration possible. From a policy perspective, it highlights the limitations of open migration pathways amid changing immigration policies as it disadvantages those who cannot change their status in response to policy changes as going ‘home’ is not always a feasible or realistic option.en
dc.subjectNew Zealanden
dc.titlePolicy, occupation and transnationalism: New Zealanders living in Australiaen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Social Sciences : Geography, Environment & Populationen
dc.provenanceThis electronic version is made publicly available by the University of Adelaide in accordance with its open access policy for student theses. Copyright in this thesis remains with the author. This thesis may incorporate third party material which has been used by the author pursuant to Fair Dealing exceptions. If you are the owner of any included third party copyright material you wish to be removed from this electronic version, please complete the take down form located at:
dc.description.dissertationThesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Social Sciences, 2021en
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