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Type: Journal article
Title: Advanced resistance studies identify two discrete mechanisms in staphylococcus aureus to overcome antibacterial compounds that target biotin protein ligase
Author: Hayes, A.J.
Satiaputra, J.
Sternicki, L.M.
Paparella, A.S.
Feng, Z.
Lee, K.J.
Rodriguez, B.B.
Tieu, W.
Eijkelkamp, B.A.
Shearwin, K.E.
Pukala, T.L.
Abell, A.D.
Booker, G.W.
Polyak, S.W.
Citation: Antibiotics, 2020; 9(4):1-20
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 2079-6382
Statement of
Andrew J. Hayes, Jiulia Satiaputra, Louise M. Sternicki, Ashleigh S. Paparella, Zikai Feng, Kwang J. Lee ... et al.
Abstract: Biotin protein ligase (BPL) inhibitors are a novel class of antibacterial that target clinically important methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In S. aureus, BPL is a bifunctional protein responsible for enzymatic biotinylation of two biotin-dependent enzymes, as well as serving as a transcriptional repressor that controls biotin synthesis and import. In this report, we investigate the mechanisms of action and resistance for a potent anti-BPL, an antibacterial compound, biotinyl-acylsulfamide adenosine (BASA). We show that BASA acts by both inhibiting the enzymatic activity of BPL in vitro, as well as functioning as a transcription co-repressor. A low spontaneous resistance rate was measured for the compound (<10-9) and whole-genome sequencing of strains evolved during serial passaging in the presence of BASA identified two discrete resistance mechanisms. In the first, deletion of the biotin-dependent enzyme pyruvate carboxylase is proposed to prioritize the utilization of bioavailable biotin for the essential enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In the second, a D200E missense mutation in BPL reduced DNA binding in vitro and transcriptional repression in vivo. We propose that this second resistance mechanism promotes bioavailability of biotin by derepressing its synthesis and import, such that free biotin may outcompete the inhibitor for binding BPL. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing antibacterial activity and resistance of BPL inhibitors in S. aureus.
Keywords: BirA
Gram-positive bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus
advanced resistance studies
antimicrobial resistance
biotin protein ligase
novel antibacterials
Rights: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9040165
Grant ID: 003
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 8
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