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Type: Journal article
Title: Effects of glutamine on gastric emptying of lowand high-nutrient drinks in healthy young subjects—impact on glycaemia
Author: Du, Y.
Piscitelli, D.
Ahmad, S.
Trahair, L.
Greenfield, J.
Samocha-Bonet, D.
Rayner, C.
Horowitz, M.
Jones, K.
Citation: Nutrients, 2018; 10(6):739-1-739-11
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 2072-6643
Statement of
Yang T. Du, Diana Piscitelli, Saima Ahmad, Laurence G. Trahair, Jerry R. Greenfield, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Christopher K. Rayner, Michael Horowitz, and Karen L. Jones
Abstract: Glutamine is a potent stimulus for the release of glucagon-like peptide-1, which increases postprandial insulin and slows gastric emptying (GE). We determined the effects of glutamine on GE of, and glycaemic responses to, low- and high-nutrient drinks in eight healthy males (mean age 21.6 ± 0.7 years and BMI 22.9 ± 0.7 kg/m²). Participants were studied on four occasions on which they consumed either a low-nutrient (beef soup; 18 kcal) or high-nutrient (75 g dextrose; 255 kcal) drink, each with or without 30 g of glutamine (120 kcal), in a randomised, crossover design. GE (2D ultrasound), blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured concurrently. Glutamine slowed GE (half emptying time (T50)) of both low- (45 ± 3 min vs. 26 ± 2 min, p < 0.001), and high-nutrient, (100 ± 5 min vs. 77 ± 5 min, p = 0.03) drinks, however, there was no effect on GE of the high nutrient drinks when expressed as kcal/min (3.39 ± 0.21 kcal/min vs. 3.81 ± 0.20 kcal/min, p = 0.25). There was no change in blood glucose after the low-nutrient drinks with or without glutamine, despite a slight increase in plasma insulin with glutamine (p = 0.007). The rise in blood glucose following the high-nutrient drink (p = 0.0001) was attenuated during the first 60 min by glutamine (p = 0.007). We conclude that in healthy subjects, glutamine slows GE of both low- and high-nutrient drinks comparably and attenuates the rise in blood glucose after the high-nutrient glucose drink.
Keywords: Glutamine; gastric emptying; glucose; postprandial; insulin; glycaemia
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
RMID: 0030090472
DOI: 10.3390/nu10060739
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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